The study examined the links of cognitive and regulatory characteristics with mathematical outcomes in high school students. Participants were 318 14–16 year old students from 7 state schools in Russia. A computerised test battery was used to measure aspects of number sense, spatial ability, spatial memory and processing speed. The battery also included two measures of mathematical performance. Academic grades and final school test scores in mathematics were also collected. In addition, the students completed the Self-Regulation Profile of Learning Activity Questionnaire— SRPLAQ,which measures different aspects of self-regulation related to achieving learning goals, such as goal planning, results evaluation, and responsibility. The results suggest that cognitive and regulatory features are independently associated with mathematical performance, and that the links differ depending on the specific aspect of mathematical performance used.